Photovoltaic systems convert solar radiation into electricity. The photovoltaic cell, the basic component of a photovoltaic system, is made of semiconductor materials whose properties it uses to capture solar radiation. These radiations are transformed into direct electric current, which is in turn transformed into alternating electric current through the inverter in the photovoltaic system.
Unlike thermal panels, photovoltaic solar panels are designed to produce electricity. The electricity that is produced can be consumed immediately, or, in order not to lose anything, it can be stored in very large capacity batteries for later use.
The amount of electricity produced at the terminals of the photovoltaic cell is mainly determined by the level of incident radiation, but also by the quality of the air, the temperature and the length of the day. At the inverter level you can monitor the amount of energy produced by the photovoltaic system, and with a smart meter you can monitor the amount of electricity injected into the grid.
Types of photovoltaic systems
The on-grid photovoltaic system is connected to the public grid. That is, the electricity produced by the panels during the day is used primarily for household consumption, and if the production exceeds the consumption, the additional energy is injected into the network and reaches other consumers. If the photovoltaic panels of an on-grid system do not capture enough solar energy, then the difference is covered by the public grid. It is very advantageous that at the end of the month you pay only the difference between the energy produced and the energy consumed.
In this way you can reduce your bill by up to 100%, and if the production exceeds the consumption then you receive money for the amount of electricity injected into the network. The downside is that you depend on the public energy system, albeit to a lesser extent, which means you have a contract with a supplier.
The off-grid photovoltaic system ensures the energy independence of the home because it has batteries that store extra energy, which it uses in times of low and non-existent solar energy production, ie on cloudy days and at night. The advantage is that you are your own energy producer : you have electricity day and night, you do not depend on the public system at all and you do not conclude a contract with a supplier. The downside is that you run out of power if the photovoltaic system is not designed and sized correctly.
The hybrid photovoltaic system combines the advantages of the other two types so that you have the best scenario. It is equipped with an inverter with a wide range of settings. Thus, among the possible variants are: consumption of photovoltaic panels and additional if necessary from the public network; consumption of photovoltaic panels and storage of additional energy in batteries to be used when needed; consumption of photovoltaic panels, charging the batteries in the grid during the night and consuming the energy stored there when needed.
Low maintenance costs
In general, photovoltaic systems do not require much maintenance. We just have to keep them clean, so they end up being cleaned a few times a year. In addition, most panel manufacturers provide a 20-25 year warranty. If there are no components that are consumed quickly, we do not have to worry.
Only the inverter needs to be replaced faster, after about 5-10 years, because it works continuously to convert solar energy into electricity.
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Cables and connections must also be checked from time to time to ensure maximum system efficiency. But in general, compared to the initial investment, these maintenance costs are minimal. Interest in the purchase of photovoltaic systems is growing due to the price of conventional energy which is becoming more and more expensive.
Photovoltaic panels are thus a renewable energy source, with an equipment life of 25-40 years and rapid payback of investment, minimum maintenance costs, being the most environmentally friendly electricity generation systems.
The investment in a photovoltaic panel system varies depending on several factors. First of all, the number of panels to be installed and their size should be considered. Of course, it also matters what is needed for electricity. Then, if it is a household consumer, we are talking about a smaller investment, and if it is an industrial consumer, we are talking about larger amounts. What is important to remember is that the investment is repaid in a short time.
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Before deciding what type of system will need to be installed in a particular location, we will need to focus on the consumers we need to power. We will need to analyze in detail what consumers we have, how many hours they work daily and what electricity they have. These elements are essential in the decision we are about to make. We will never be able to consume more energy than we produce, and if we do, then we will need to take energy from a source other than that available in the system.
Companies that opt for the installation of solar panels for electricity production have the opportunity to optimize their costs, reducing the impact produced by increases in electricity prices. For those who want to install a photovoltaic system but do not have enough funds, there are several ways to finance in order to financially support these expenses . See the following for some financing solutions and choose the best solution for you.
Maximum non-refundable amount: 20,000 lei
Land / roof area for panel installation: 16-20 m2
If you meet the eligibility conditions, you can get up to 20,000 lei non-refundable for photovoltaic panels and accessories. To this amount is added your own contribution, at least 10%, which must be financed by you, as the owner. Installation labor, the price of panels and accessories as well as VAT are included in the price.
Thus, with an investment of approximately 6000 lei, you can purchase and install a 3.56 kWp system. This is enough for the consumption of an entire family, and you inject the excess energy into the national grid for extra income.
With this program, you save considerably, regardless of the installed power of the required system, compared to the budget required to pay monthly electricity bills for 25 years.
To submit the application for funding, on the first visit to our headquarters, please bring the following documents:
- IC copy;
- Deed of ownership of house / land / building;
- Land book extract (without common spaces in the property);
- Proof that there are no outstanding debts to the state and / or local budget.
GEFF (Green Economy Financing Facility) is a program developed by the EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development) dedicated to Romanian residents, individuals or legal entities, who want to invest in renewable energy.
Currently, the local banks involved in the contact program (Banca Transilvania and Unicredit) offer the following GEFF products only for individuals:
- Consumer credit: for the purchase of products from the GEFF technology selector, which also includes solar photovoltaic systems.
- Mortgage lending: for the installation of energy efficient solutions in new homes.
The amounts obtained also include the investment in labor for the installation and commissioning of the system.
The GEFF program is aimed at a wide range of individuals or companies who want to invest in an eligible solution based on photovoltaic systems. Whether it’s homeowners or property owners, homeowners’ associations, maintenance service providers, eligible equipment or companies providing „green” technology, all of these categories can benefit from GEFF lending.
If you want to talk more about financing through GEFF, Suntech Solar advisors are at your disposal.
This program is addressed to legal entities, classified in one of the categories, SMEs, micro-enterprises, PFAs and tourism operators HoReCa
The grant shall be awarded for a maximum of EUR 100,000 for the installation of photovoltaic panels for the production of electricity with an installed capacity of 100 kWp and at least a recharging station of at least 22 kW for plug-in hybrid electric and electric vehicles, with at least two charging points, representing a financial support of up to 100% of the eligible expenses.
The financing is granted by the Ministry of Energy on the basis of the de minimis scheme, and the total amount of de minimis aid from which the applicant benefited for a period of 3 consecutive years (2 previous fiscal years and the fiscal year during which he submits financing file), cumulated with the value of the financial allocation granted under the de minimis scheme, does not exceed the ceiling established by Regulation (EU) no. 1,407 / 2013, as well as the ceiling established by Regulation (EU) no. 360/2012 of the Commission of 25 April 2012.
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Documents required to obtain the installation permit for photovoltaic panels
Before you start installing solar panels, you need to make sure you have all the necessary documents and approvals.
Starting with June 27, 2019, the persons interested in installing photovoltaic panels are no longer forced to spend money and waste time to obtain the building permit because by amending Law no. 50/1991 on the authorization of construction works, the obligation to hold such an authorization was eliminated.
According to the new legal provisions, the installation of photovoltaic panels for electricity production and / or solar panels for water heating is allowed without the building owner obtaining a building permit, but town halls must be notified of changes to the home before work begins.
Alte documente de care ai nevoie:
- Avizul de Salubritate – se emite în termen de 15 zile de către firma de salubritate locală. Taxa este stabilită de firma în cauză.
- Avizul ISU – este emis în termen de 30 de zile de către Inspectoratul pentru Situații de Urgență.
- Avizul de telefonizare – este emis în termen de 15 zile de către furnizorul de telefonie. Taxa variază între 3 și 9 euro (fără TVA).
- Avizul de amplasament furnizor de energie – este emis în termen de 15 zile de către distribuitorul de energie electrică. Taxa este de 55 lei (fără TVA).
- Avizul tehnic de racordare – este emis în termen de 30 de zile de către distribuitorul de energie electrică. Taxa este de 42 lei (fără TVA).
- Licența de producere și acreditare a energiei electrice – sunt două documente emise de către Autoritatea Națională de Reglementare în domeniul Energiei (ANRE) în termen de 60 de zile, respectiv 30 de zile.
- Certificatul de racordare – este emis gratuit în termen de 30 de zile de către distribuitorul de energie electrică.
Cam astea ar fi în mare informațiile strict necesare dacă aveți în calcul pentru viitorul apropiat să cumpărați sau să instalați un sistem fotovoltaic pentru asigurarea energiei electrice necesare . Mai sunt foarte multe detalii tehnice de luat în calcul însă vă recomandăm să apelați la specialiști pentru restul detaliilor deoarece aceștia beneficiază de experiența în domeniu și vă pot da cele mai eficiente soluții , astfel încât să nu faceți alegeri greșite care să vă aducă doar probleme .